Culture he first records of Singapore date back to the second and third centuries where a vague reference to its location was found in Greek and Chinese texts, under the names of Sabana and Pu Luo Chung respectively.
According to legend, Srivijayan prince Sang Nila Utama landed on the island and, catching sight of a strange creature that he thought was a lion, decided to found a new city he called Singapura, Sanskrit for Lion City, c. 1299. Alas, there have never been any lions anywhere near Singapore (until the Singapore Zoo opened) or elsewhere on Malaya in historical times, so the mysterious beast was more probably a tiger or wild boar.
More historical records indicate that the island was settled at least two centuries earlier and was known as Temasek, Javanese for “Sea Town”, and an important port for the Sumatran Srivijaya kingdom. However, Srivijaya fell around 1400 and Temasek, battered by the feuding kingdoms of Siam and the Javanese Majapahit, fell into obscurity.
As Singapura, it then briefly regained importance as a trading centre for the Melaka Sultanate and later, the Johor Sultanate. However, Portuguese raiders then destroyed the settlement and Singapura faded into obscurity once more.
The story of Singapore as we know it today began in 1819, when Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles made a deal with a claimant to the throne of the Sultanate of Johor: the British would support his claim in exchange for the right to set up a trading post on the island.
Though the Dutch initially protested, the signing of the Anglo-Dutch treaty in 1824, which separated the Malay world into British and Dutch spheres of influence (resulting in the current Malaysia-Indonesia and Singapore-Indonesia borders), ended the conflict. The Dutch renounced their claim to Singapore and ceded their colony in Malacca to the British, in exchange for the British ceding their colonies on Sumatra to the Dutch.
Well-placed at the entrance to the Straits of Malacca, straddling the trade routes between China, India, Europe, and Australia, Raffles’ master stroke was to declare Singapore a free port, with no duties charged on trade. As traders flocked to escape onerous Dutch taxes, the trading post soon grew into one of Asia’s busiest, drawing people from far and wide. Along with Penang and Malacca, Singapore became one of the Straits Settlements and a jewel in the British colonial crown. Its economic fortunes received a further boost when palm oil and rubber from neighbouring Malaya were processed and shipped out via Singapore.
In 1867, Singapore was formally split off from British India and made into a directly ruled Crown Colony.
When World War II broke out, Fortress Singapore was seen as a formidable British base, with massive naval fortifications guarding against assault by sea. However, not only did the fortress lack a fleet, as all ships were tied up defending Britain from the Germans, but the Japanese wisely chose to cross Malaya by bicycle instead!
Despite hastily turning the guns around, this was something the sea-focused British commanders had not considered, and on 15 Feb 1942, with supplies critically low after less than a week of fighting, Singapore was forced to surrender. The British prisoners of war were packed off to Changi Prison. Tens of thousands perished in the subsequent brutal Japanese occupation. The return of the British in 1945 to one of their most favoured colonies was triumphalist.
Granted self-rule in 1955, Singapore briefly joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 when the British left, but was expelled because the Chinese-majority city was seen as a threat to Malay dominance. The island became independent on 9 August 1965, thus becoming the only country to gain independence against its own will in the history of the modern world!
The subsequent forty years rule by Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew saw Singapore’s economy boom, with the country rapidly becoming one of the wealthiest and most developed in Asia despite its lack of natural resources, earning it a place as one of the four East Asian Tigers. Now led by Lee’s son Lee Hsien Loong, the ruling People’s Action Party (PAP) continues to dominate the political scene with 81 out of 87 seats in Parliament. Societal restrictions have been loosened up in recent years though, with the government trying to shake off its staid image, and it remains to be seen how the delicate balancing act between political control and social freedom will play out.
Between May and October, forest fires in neighbouring Sumatra cause dense haze that regularly reaches unhealthy levels – although it is unpredictable and may come and go rapidly. Check the National Environment Agency’s site for current data. In general, Singapore is best avoided from June to October if you have chronic heart or lung conditions or you simply don’t want to suffer unhealthy pollution.
As Singapore is located a mere 1.5 degrees north of the Equator, its weather is usually sunny with no distinct seasons. Rain falls almost daily throughout the year, usually in sudden, heavy showers that rarely last longer than an hour. However, most rainfall occurs during the north east monsoon (November to January), occasionally featuring lengthy spells of continuous rain. Spectacular thunderstorms can occur throughout the year, any time during the day, so it’s wise to carry an umbrella at all times, both as a shade from the sun or cover from the rain. Thunderstorms are very common sights in Singapore, and it rains in the country a lot, so, once again, an umbrella is necessary.
The temperature averages around:
29.5°C (85.1°F) daytime, 22.5°C (72.5°F) at night in December and January. An occasional low of 21°C (69.8°F) can also be expected.
32°C (89.6°F) daytime, 24°C (82.4°F) at night for the rest of the year. The temperature usually hovers around the 28°C (82.4°F) mark.
The temperatures are relatively high in the day, as expected in a tropical country, but windy conditions are expected at night. Bear in mind that spending more than about one hour outdoors can be very exhausting, especially if combined with moderate exercise. Singaporeans themselves shun the heat, and for a good reason. Many live in air-conditioned flats, work in air-conditioned offices, take the air-conditioned metro to air-conditioned shopping malls connected to each other by underground tunnels where they shop, eat, and exercise in air-conditioned fitness clubs
Time & Date: GMT +8
The Singapore dollar is the official currency of Singapore. It is divided into 100 cents. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or S$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. The Monetary Authority of Singapore issues the banknotes and coins of the Singapore dollar.
As of 2016, the Singapore dollar is the twelfth most traded currency in the world by value.Apart from its use in Singapore, the Singapore dollar is also accepted as customary tender in Brunei according to the Currency Interchangeability Agreement between the Monetary Authority of Singapore and the Autoriti Monetari Brunei Darussalam (Monetary Authority of Brunei Darussalam). Likewise, the Brunei dollar is also customarily accepted in Singapore.
According to the Constitution of Singapore, the four official languages of Singapore are English, Malay, Mandarin and Tamil while the symbolic national language is Malay. The three languages other than English were chosen to correspond with the major ethnic groups present in Singapore at the time: Mandarin had gained status since the introduction of Chinese-medium schools; Malay was deemed the “most obvious choice” for the Malay community; and Tamil for the largest Indian ethnic group in Singapore, in addition to being “the language with the longest history of education in Malaysia and Singapore”.In 2009, more than 20 languages were identified as being spoken in Singapore, reflecting a rich linguistic diversity in the city.Singapore’s historical roots as a trading settlement gave rise to an influx of foreign traders, and their languages were slowly embedded in Singapore’s modern day linguistic repertoire.
In the early years, the lingua franca of the island was Bazaar Malay (Melayu Pasar), a creole of Malay and Chinese, the language of trade in the Malay Archipelago. While it continues to be used among many on the island, especially Singaporean Malays, Malay has now been displaced by English. English became the lingua franca due to British rule of Singapore and was made the main language upon Singaporean independence. Thus, English is the medium of instruction in schools, and is also the main language used in formal settings such as in government departments and the courts.
Hokkien (Min Nan) and Cantonese briefly emerged as a lingua franca among the Chinese,but by the late 20th century it had been eclipsed by Mandarin. The Government promotes Mandarin among Singaporean Chinese, since it views the language as a bridge between Singapore’s diverse non-Mandarin speaking groups, and as a tool for forging a common Chinese cultural identity. China’s economic rise in the 21st century has also encouraged a greater use of Mandarin. Other Chinese varieties such as Hokkien, Teochew, Hakka, Hainanese and Cantonese have been classified by the Government as “dialects”, and language policies and changes in language attitudes based on this classification have led to a decrease in the number of speakers of these varieties. While Tamil is one of Singapore’s official languages, other Indian languages are also frequently used.
Almost all Singaporeans are bilingual since Singapore’s bilingual language education policy promotes a dual-language learning system. Learning a second language has been compulsory in primary schools since 1960 and secondary schools since 1966. English is used as the main medium of instruction. On top of this, most children learn one of the three official languages (or, occasionally, another approved language) as a second language, according to their official registered ethnic group. Since 1 January 2011, if a person is of more than one ethnicity and their race is registered in the hyphenated format, the race chosen will be the one that precedes the hyphen in their registered race.
When buying your travel insurance, always check the small print – some policies specifically exclude ‘dangerous activities’, which could be anything from scuba diving to horse riding. You should check whether the medical coverage is on a pay first, claim later basis and, more importantly, ensure that your medical coverage includes the cost of medical evacuation.
The visa application form is available free of charge at all Singapore overseas missions (except for non-resident High Commissioners/Ambassadors based in Singapore). You may also download the form here. The list of our Overseas Missions is available here. You should approach the nearest Mission directly for more information on the requirements and procedures to apply for a visa.
You may also wish to apply for a visa through a local contact in Singapore who is a Singapore citizen or a Permanent Resident in possession of a “SingPass” account. The visa application can be submitted online through your local contact in Singapore via the SAVE system at Singapore Immigration & Checkpoints Authority (ICA)’s website www.ica.gov.sg. After ICA processes the application, the local contact in Singapore can print out or collect the visa at ICA and mail it to you.
All visitors to Singapore must meet the following entry requirements:
• Valid travel document (minimum validity of 6 months at the time of departure)
• Confirmed onward or return tickets (if applicable)
• Entry facilities, including visas, to the next destination;
• Sufficient funds to maintain themselves during their stay in Singapore; and,
• Visa for entry into Singapore (if applicable)
• Yellow Fever Vaccination (if applicable)
Singapore Changi Airport
Currency: Singapore Dollar
Population: 5.6 million
Official languages: English, Tamil, Malay, Chinese