Egypt

Egypt (Arabic: “مصر”; officially, the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: جمهورية مصر العربية) is in north-eastern Africa with its capital located in its largest city, Cairo. Egypt also extends into Asia by virtue of holding the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is bordered by Israel and the Gaza Strip to the north-east, by Sudan to the south and by Libya to the west. The country is bounded by the Mediterranean and Red Seas (to the north and east respectively) and geographically dominated both by the Nile River and its fertile well-watered valley, and by the Eastern and Western deserts.
Egypt is perhaps best known as the home of the ancient Egyptian civilization, with its temples, hieroglyphs, mummies, and – visible above all – its pyramids. Less well-known is Egypt’s medieval heritage, courtesy of Coptic Christianity and Islam – ancient churches, monasteries and mosques punctuate the Egyptian landscape. Egypt stimulates the imagination of western tourists like few other countries and is probably one of the most popular tourist destinations world-wide.
History
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allows the development of one of the world’s great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose around 3200 BC and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 BC, who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks, took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt’s government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honoured place of the Nile River in agriculture and the ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to prepare the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.

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Culture

Egypt’s culture and history date back thousands of years to the times of the ancient Pharaohs. While some of these ancient traditions remain evident, modern Egypt has evolved greatly due to influences of immigrants from other Arab nations. Visitors to Egypt will notice that Egyptian people are mild-mannered and very polite, as a result of their religious principles. Understanding Egyptian customs and culture is essential to a successful trip to Egypt.

Attitudes Egyptian people are generally very helpful, so tourists rarely have trouble finding assistance with directions or recommendations. It is not unusual for an entire crowd of Egyptians to surround you trying to answer a query. They stand very close when speaking, requiring very little personal space. Egyptians are accustomed to refusing every invitation the first time it was offered, so if your offer is genuine, repeat it a second time. The same goes with invitations from Egyptian people. They will offer something once out of politeness, but you know the offer is sincere if it is repeated. If you accept an invitation into an Egyptian home, such as for a meal, and you do not show, the hosts would be humiliated.

Climate

Egypt is largely a desert, an extension of the great Sahara that bands North Africa. Save for the thin strip of watered land along the Nile River broadening into the Nile delta, very little could survive here. As the ancient Greek historian Herodotus stated: “Egypt is the gift of the Nile”.

Generally, the summers are hot and dry and the winters, moderate. November through March are definitely the most comfortable months for travel in Egypt. There is almost no rain in the Nile valley, so you won’t need wet weather gear!
The climate, however, varies a little bit depending on where you are in the country. On the north coast along the Mediterranean Sea, a thin strip of land stretching from the sea to 50km southwards receives some of the most heavy rain in the country during winter months. Thunderstorms along with heavy rain showers that often last several hours are not uncommon here such as in Alexandria, Marsa Matruh and all other coastal areas, and even the Delta. In some years the rainstorms can last for a whole day or so, though the rain tends to be less heavy. Hail is also not uncommon, especially out in the desert where the weather is usually colder and allows for ice to fall and even frost to form on non-rainy days.

In the Sinai Mountains and also the Red Sea mountains, which stretch along the east side of the country along the shore of the Red Sea, is generally more rain as rain clouds tend to develop when warm air evaporates and rises as it moves across higher terrain. Floods in these areas are a common weather phenomenon as so much rain can fall in a very short amount of time (often a day or two), with thunder and lightning as well. Because of the desert and lack of abundant vegetation, the water from the rain quickly falls down across the hills and mountains and floods local areas. In fact, every year there are stories in the local newspapers about flash floods in areas of the Sinai and also in Upper Egypt (southern Egypt) such as in Assiut, Luxor, Aswan, Sohag, etc. These floods, however, only generally happen two or three times a year, and often do not happen at all in some years, depending on the weather. When they happen though, it is often in early times of the season such as in September, October or late winter such as February or March (often the rainiest season in Egypt). Thus, one should be careful when venturing out into the desert or camping in certain areas as water can suddenly rush down from the nearby mountains and hills. It can sometimes carry a quite strong current that has been known to break down homes of rural people who build their homes from mud, bricks, and other weak materials. It is not surprising to hear that some people drown in the floods, which is strange for a desert country that doesn’t receive much precipitation.

Also, in higher elevations such as on top of the Sinai mountains, temperatures can drop much more than the surrounding areas, allowing for snowfall in winter months, since temperatures can drop down to below freezing, as well as formation of frost even in the low lying desert areas where the temperatures are generally several degrees colder than in the cities.
December and January are usually the coldest months of the year, although it is normally warmer the further south you go and within the bigger cities.

Visitors should be aware that most houses and apartments in Cairo and Egypt do not have central heating like countries with colder climates as the main weather concern in Egypt is the heat. Therefore, even though the weather might not be so cold for the Western traveller, inside the apartment it might be even colder as the temperature inside homes is generally a few or several degrees colder than out in the street.

Time & Date GMT +2

Currency: Egyptian pound

Languages: Arabic

Food & Drinks:
Egyptian food combines elements of Lebanese, Turkish, Syrian, Greek and French cuisines, modified to suit local conditions and tastes, with more Mediterranean influences, for example, in Alexandria, and spicy Nubian cooking in the south.
Cafés, diners and street stalls offer simpler dishes than more formal restaurants catering to middle-class Egyptians and tourists, with proper menus and a broader range of dishes.
Restaurant prices do not usually include service and taxes, which generally add around seventeen percent to the bill. Tips are a couple of pounds per person in cheap places, ten to fifteen percent in pricier establishments if service is not included (or even if it is).

Travel Insurance
Travel insurance to cover theft, loss and medical problems is a good idea. Some policies exclude ‘dangerous activities’, which can include scuba diving, motorcycling and trekking.
Insure yourself to the gills if you’re driving. Road conditions are hazardous. For the same reason, check that the policy covers ambulances and an emergency flight home.

Visa
Visitors to Egypt must obtain a visa from one of the Egyptian diplomatic missions unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries or countries that are eligible for visa on arrival.[1] Visitors must hold passports that are valid for at least 6 months from the date of arrival to Egypt.

In March 2015 it was announced that all foreigners travelling to Egypt for tourism will require visas in advance as of May 15, 2015. The only exemption will be for organized groups visiting through an Egyptian travel agency.[2][3][4] In April 2015 Egyptian authorities announced that they have reversed the decision until an electronic visa system is in place.[5][6]

International Airports
Aswan Airport
Cairo International Airport
El Nohza Airport Alexandria
Hurghada Airport
Luxor Airport
Marsa Alam Intl Airport
Mersa Matruh Airport Mersa Matruh
Sharm El Sheikh International Airport Ras Nasrani
Taba International Airport Ţābā

Capital: Cairo
Currency: Egyptian Pound
Population: 86,895,099
Official languages: Arabic
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94{cade3cd6ea44c9e099402f61e95e983e8f83ab951f3ff944c0038bbba399d24f}, Coptic Christian and other 6{cade3cd6ea44c9e099402f61e95e983e8f83ab951f3ff944c0038bbba399d24f}

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